In all other regions of the world the incidence of civil war has been on a broadly declining trend over the past thirty years: But is there anything more?
Wisch Place of Publication: This discussion analyzes the relevant state laws that affect cats. It also raises and attempts to answer several questions directed to cat owners, including licensing of cats, the feral cat problem, and state vaccination requirements.
Cats have been central both as an efficient means of pest control and as companions for their humans. The historical significance of cats has even been judicially recognized: The time of its first domestication is lost in the mists of the dawn of history, but it is apparent that the cat was a domestic animal among the early Egyptians, by whom it came to be regarded as sacred, as evidenced by the device of Cambyses during his invasion of Egypt B.
From that day to this it has been a dweller in the homes of men. In no other animal has affection for home been more strongly developed, and in none, when absent from home, can the animus revertendi be more surely assumed to exist.
For a truly historical note on cat laws, see Chapter 6, entitled "The Cat and the Law" from photographer and art critic, Karl Van Vechten's, The Tiger in the House available at http: In fact, more people select cats than dogs as household companions in the United States. Despite the popularity of this feline friend, laws that specifically regulate cats are few and far between.
An examination of the laws affecting cats, both historic and present, is instructive. This stemmed not from the disdain many claim to have for cats due to their elusive and independent nature, but rather due to their lack of commercial importance. But it is urged that the cat is not the subject of larceny, and therefore its owner can have but a qualified property therein.
Among the ancient Britons it was held to have intrinsic value, and the theft of a cat was punishable by fine. When, however, larceny became punishable capitally, the courts, to mitigate the severity of the law, held that certain animals were not the subject of larceny as not fit for food, or as base, or as kept only for pleasure, curiosity, or whim.
They are instanced by Blackstone, as "dogs, bears, cats, apes, parrots, and singing birds, because their value is not intrinsic, but depending only on the caprice of the owner.
And Hawkins, speaking of the subjects of larceny, says: Thus, history has not endowed United States' state codes with many laws relating to cats. Certainly, the advent of anti-cruelty laws has been a remarkable step for the protection of both domestic and wild creatures.
However, the regulation of other aspects of cat ownership has not followed suit. T he majority of cat-related laws address the same concerns as dog laws; that is health and licensing.
This change to include cats under the purview companion animal statutory sections may reflect a shift to recognize the increasing ownership of cats and the concomitant issues that have arisen.
This disparity in laws begs the question: Again, history lends an answer: Acting upon the principle that there is but a qualified property in them [dogs], and that, while private interests require that the valuable ones shall be protected, public interests demand that the worthless shall be exterminated, they have, from time immemorial, been considered as holding their lives at the will of the legislature, and properly falling within the police powers of the several states.
Laws for the protection of domestic animals are regarded as having but a limited application to dogs and cats; and, regardless of statute, a ferocious dog is looked upon as hostis humani generisand as having no right to his life which man is bound to respect.
Dogs have historically been the symbol of the hydrophobic, marauding beast, ravaging small children and livestock alike. Cats, by virtue of their general overall size and jaw strength, were not seen as a threat to civilized society.
Further, cats in agricultural locations kept to themselves in barn communities, surviving with little concern or connection to human life. As times change, however, so do the concerns of pet owners. With this, come the usual animal concerns related to property damage and trespass as well as the continuing concern of cats spreading disease to human companions.
But, the popularity of cats has created a new and unique concern. Overpopulation fed by human neglect has created the phenomenon of urban-dwelling, feral cats. This overview will examine the pertinent state cat laws in existence with an attempt to answer those questions that implicate cat ownership.
It should be kept in mind that most laws that affect cats are enacted at the local or municipal level. This paper will not delve specifically into municipal codes, but a future paper is expected to address local cat control with an examination of various ordinances.
Laws may pursue form over function. For example, the official Maine cat is, of course, the Maine coon cat. With regard to laws that actually regulate cats, California has the most comprehensive section, which outlines the minimum time for weaning kittens, yearly veterinary requirements, and holding periods for impounded cats among others.This webpage is for Dr.
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War is a state of armed conflict between states, governments, societies and informal paramilitary groups, such as mercenaries, insurgents and timberdesignmag.com is generally characterized by extreme violence, aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces.
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between natural resources and conflict, many scholars conclude that the struggle over access to and control over natural resources constitutes. frica nstitute out frica AISA ICY brief Number arc 3 The linkages Table 1 Recent conflicts in Africa linked to natural resources Country Duration Natural resources.
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No idea has percolated more widely over the past decade—and none is more bogus. Natural Resources and Conflict in Africa is the first book to offer a detailed look at conflict over various natural resources in several African countries.
Abiodun Alao undertakes this broad survey by categorizing natural resources into four groups: land [including agricultural .