Ancient Greek Philosophy We can start with the Greeks, and this means starting with Homer, a body of texts transmitted first orally and then written down in the seventh century BCE. So what does the relation between morality and religion look like in Homer? The first thing to say is that the gods and goddesses of the Homeric poems behave remarkably like the noble humans described in the same poems, even though the humans are mortal and the gods and goddesses immortal. Both groups are motivated by the desire for honor and glory, and are accordingly jealous when they receive less than they think they should while others receive more, and work ceaselessly to rectify this.
It is possible that Spinoza, as he made progress through his studies, was being groomed for a career as a rabbi. But he never made it into the upper levels of the curriculum, those which included advanced study of Talmud.
And then, on July 27,Spinoza was issued the harshest writ of herem, ban or excommunication, ever pronounced by the Sephardic community of Amsterdam; it was never rescinded. No doubt he was giving utterance to just those ideas that would soon appear in his philosophical treatises.
In those works, Spinoza denies the immortality of the soul; strongly rejects the notion of a transcendent, providential God—the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; and claims that the Law was neither literally given by God nor any longer binding on Jews. To all appearances, Spinoza was content finally to have an excuse for departing from the community and leaving Judaism behind; his faith and religious commitment were, by this point, gone.
Within a few years, he left Amsterdam altogether. By the time his extant correspondence begins, inhe is living in Rijnsburg, not far from Leiden. While in Rijnsburg, he worked on the Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect, an essay on philosophical method, and the Short Treatise on God, Man and His Well-Being, an initial but aborted effort to lay out his metaphysical, epistemological and moral views.
By this time, he was also working on what would eventually be called the Ethics, his philosophical masterpiece. When Spinoza died inin The Hague, he was still at work on his Political Treatise; this was soon published by his friends along with his other unpublished writings, including a Compendium to Hebrew Grammar.
Ethics The Ethics is an ambitious and multifaceted work. It is also bold to the point of audacity, as one would expect of a systematic and unforgiving critique of the traditional philosophical conceptions of God, the human being and the universe, and, above all, of the religions and the theological and moral beliefs grounded thereupon.
What Spinoza intends to demonstrate in the strongest sense of that word is the truth about God, nature and especially ourselves; and the highest principles of society, religion and the good life. Despite the great deal of metaphysics, physics, anthropology and psychology that take up Parts One through Three, Spinoza took the crucial message of the work to be ethical in nature.
It consists in showing that our happiness and well-being lie not in a life enslaved to the passions and to the transitory goods we ordinarily pursue; nor in the related unreflective attachment to the superstitions that pass as religion, but rather in the life of reason.
To clarify and support these broadly ethical conclusions, however, Spinoza must first demystify the universe and show it for what it really is. This requires laying out some metaphysical foundations, the project of Part One.
From these, the first proposition necessarily follows, and every subsequent proposition can be demonstrated using only what precedes it. References to the Ethics will be by part I—Vproposition pdefinition dscholium s and corollary c.
In propositions one through fifteen of Part One, Spinoza presents the basic elements of his picture of God. God is the infinite, necessarily existing that is, uncausedunique substance of the universe. There is only one substance in the universe; it is God; and everything else that is, is in God.
A substance is prior in nature to its affections. Two substances having different attributes have nothing in common with one another.
In other words, if two substances differ in nature, then they have nothing in common. If things have nothing in common with one another, one of them cannot be the cause of the other. Two or more distinct things are distinguished from one another, either by a difference in the attributes [i.
In nature, there cannot be two or more substances of the same nature or attribute. One substance cannot be produced by another substance. It pertains to the nature of a substance to exist. Every substance is necessarily infinite. The more reality or being each thing has, the more attributes belong to it.1.
Biography. Bento (in Hebrew, Baruch; in Latin, Benedictus: all three names mean “blessed”) Spinoza was born in in Amsterdam.
He was the middle son in a prominent family of moderate means in Amsterdam’s Portuguese-Jewish community. Religious ethics are the moral principles that guide religions and that set the standard for what is and isn’t acceptable behavior.
Surprisingly similar from one religion to the next, these fundamental principles flow from the core beliefs and ancient wisdom of religion, as well as its teachers and traditions. Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics.
|The origins of ethics||It persisted as the dominant approach in Western moral philosophy until at least the Enlightenment, suffered a momentary eclipse during the nineteenth century, but re-emerged in Anglo-American philosophy in the late s.|
|Secular perspective challenged||What the Bible says about its own inerrancy Sponsored link.|
|Ethics - Wikipedia||Under deontology, an act may be considered right even if the act produces a bad consequence,  if it follows the rule or moral law. According to the deontological view, people have a duty to act in a way that does those things that are inherently good as acts "truth-telling" for exampleor follow an objectively obligatory rule as in rule utilitarianism.|
|Virtue Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)||Sermon on the MountThe New Commandmentand Ministry of Jesus Christian ethics in general has tended to stress the need for love, gracemercyand forgiveness because of sin. With divine assistance, the Christian is called to become increasingly virtuous in both thought and deed, see also the Evangelical counsels.|
It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism). Ethics, also called moral philosophy, the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad, right and wrong.
The term is also applied to any system or theory of moral values or principles.. How should we live? Shall we aim at happiness or at knowledge, virtue, or the creation of beautiful objects?If we choose happiness, will it be our own or the happiness of all?
In fact, it is a controversial code of ethics apparently developed for an ancient Greek cult having many of the characteristics of a mystery religion. Hippocratic, Religious and Secular Medical Ethics: The Point of Conflict - The Gifford Lectures.
Religious ethics are the moral principles that guide religions and that set the standard for what is and isn’t acceptable behavior.
Surprisingly similar from one religion to the next, these fundamental principles flow from the core beliefs and ancient wisdom of religion, as well as its teachers.