TA Consulting, Illinois, USA Abstract The literature related to online learning programs for K students dates to the mids and builds upon a century of research and practice from K distance education. While K online learning programs have evolved and grown over the past decade, the amount of published research on virtual schooling practice and policy is limited. The current literature includes practitioner reports and experimental and quasi-experimental studies, both published and unpublished.
TA Consulting, Illinois, USA Abstract The literature related to online learning programs for K students dates to the mids and builds upon a century of research and practice from K distance education.
While K online learning programs have evolved and grown over the past decade, the amount of published research on virtual schooling practice and policy is limited. The current literature includes practitioner reports and experimental and quasi-experimental studies, both published and unpublished.
This paper reviews open access literature in K online learning and reports on a structured content analysis of the documents. Themes in the literature include steady growth and a focus on the benefits, challenges, and broad effectiveness of K online learning.
In addition, newly developed standards for K online learning are emerging in descriptions of effective practices. A fundamental challenge in this relatively new educational field for program developers, managers, and instructors is locating guidance from successful practice and from research and literature.
Online learning is a form of distance education whose central defining characteristic is the separation of teacher and learner Keegan, Many K online learning programs in North American are referred to as virtual schools.
The authors reviewed the existing open access literature in K online learning and report on a structured content analysis of selected documents.
These reviews were limited to dozens of studies and reports, compared to recent reviews of the literature on adult online learning, which included hundreds of studies e.
As an example of the growth in the published literature in K online learning, of publications that were reviewed for this paper and published since29 were published during the first three years of that period and 69 were published since The findings of the previous reviews were limited to generalizations about broad effectiveness because insufficient data were available to substantiate analysis of factors that contributed to effectiveness.
However, the picture is changing as data from the first ten years of virtual schooling have become available. This paper moves beyond the blanket endorsements of the effectiveness of virtual schooling to examine the themes that are prevalent in the open access documents published online from through July Examining these themes revealed the emphases in virtual schooling research as well as the needs for future study.
In many ways, this is indicative of the foundational descriptive work that often precedes experimentation in any scientific field.
In other words, it is important to know how students in virtual schools engage in their learning in this environment prior to conducting any rigorous examination of virtual schooling.
Expanding upon his definition of a virtual school, Clark indicated that there were different types of virtual schools, which he categorized in seven ways see Table 1. Watson, Winograd, and Kalmon offered a slightly different classification consisting of five types of virtual school, which were summarized by Rice see Table 2.
In the full description, Barker et al. Powell and Patrick found that while many other countries operate some form of Web-based or online curricular support program for students and teachers e.
In fact, Australian Glenn Russell is one of the few scholars outside of North America who has written about virtual schooling e. Barbour and Reeves classified virtual schooling literature as outlining the benefits of virtual schooling or describing the difficulties or challenges of virtual schooling.
They argued that the benefits could be divided into five main areas: However, whether these benefits are realized through virtual schooling remains in doubt in the minds of some critics, and the research to support these conjectures is limited. Along with the benefits, there were a number of challenges associated with virtual schooling.
Barbour and Reeves described these challenges as the high start-up costs associated with virtual schools, access issues surrounding the digital divide, the approval or accreditation of virtual schools, and student readiness and retention issues see Table 4.
The literature that reports research on virtual schooling tends to fall into one of two categories: Over the past decade, several studies have shown that the only students who were typically successful in online learning environments were those who had independent orientations towards learning, who were highly motivated by intrinsic sources, and who had strong time management, literacy, and technology skills Cavanaugh, These characteristics are consistent with traits that are typically associated with adult learners.
The problem with this focus is that adults learn differently from children and adolescents Bright, ; Cavanaugh et al. This supposition has led to the call for more research into the factors that account for K student success in online learning.
The authors used a type of metasynthesis called template analysis, which entailed designing a template for the coding of the literature Au, For our metasynthesis, the literature about K virtual education was collected from systematic searches of refereed conference proceedings, refereed journals, dissertation indexes, and reports in the education press.
A significant portion of the research and reporting on K distance education hadbeen conducted by public and private research centers e. Search terms included but were not limited to the following: Our analysis was based on both the general literature on virtual schooling and the research on virtual schooling.
A systematic review of the literature in K online learning provides a history of this new field of inquiry as well as a context for decision-making. Content analysis is also used to study distance education at the level of the course, across programs, and within the literature.
Recent studies have analyzed the content of titles, authors, and abstracts of distance education articles e. This metasynthesis commenced with a description of the literature base and its purposes.
Template construction afforded both a classification of the literature and its meanings and messages.Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature Foreign Literature The major curricular reform will occur in an attempt to make schools more flexible and responsive to individual student needs.
Nearly one-third of the elementary and junior high curricula will be eliminated with deep cuts in all major subjects%(6). REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Introduction Survey of related literature provides valuable help in the development of knowledge in research work.
It helps the investigator to gain insight into various aspects of the problem area, that is in formulating a framework . A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF K FOREIGN LANGUAGE. EDUCATION IN AMERICAN AND CHINESE PUBLIC SCHOOLS: A CASE STUDY OF SIX FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS.
A Thesis. schools of the two countries regarding the literature. My review of the literature is categorized by three foundational elements indicating best practices in K foreign.
timberdesignmag.com is a platform for academics to share research papers. Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies This part of the study contains related literature and studies after the thorough and in-depth research of the researcher.
Related Literatures come from both Foreign and Local published literatures that became the basis for the researcher to pursue this study. () K–12 (k twelve) is a designed curriculum for the sum of primary and secondary education.
It is used in the United States, Canada, Turkey, Philippines, and Australia. (K) for 4- to 6-year-olds through twelfth grade (12) for 7- to year-olds, It is a free education from Kindergarten to Senior High School in the countries mentioned respectively.