Share The Sexual Is Political Segregated toilet doors are today at the center of a big legal and ideological struggle. Tim Cook can easily forget about hundreds of thousands of Foxconn workers in China assembling Apple products in slave conditions; he made his big gesture of solidarity with the underprivileged, demanding the abolition of gender segregation… As is often the case, big business stands proudly united with politically correct theory. The vision of social relations that sustains transgenderism is the so-called postgenderism: Their proposal not only concerns scientific possibility, but is also ethically grounded.
How a liberal learned to respect conservative thinking and accept the fact that, yes, the right is happier than the left By Catherine Caldwell-Harris Photo by Jessica Scranton What It Means When You Dye Your Hair Purple Should a something information technology specialist, by all accounts a competent employee, be able to dye her long, wavy brown hair purple without getting grief from management?
That question was at the heart of the conversation at a recent dinner for a group of intelligent and age-diverse women. Download the complete MP3 But I had to dye it back. It makes you stand out. You are defiantly not fitting in with the group. They were changed by several things, but the most powerful forces were my readings in social and cross-cultural psychology and Individual and political freedom essay experiences in other cultures.
Overseas Education It was May Weeks earlier I had returned from a semester-long sabbatical in China, where I had traveled with my Taiwanese doctoral student for two research projects, both about language, but quite different. One project studied the cognitive processing underlying reading Chinese script, and the other involved interviews and questionnaires on the comfort and frequency of use of the phrase Wo ai ni I love you.
Once, during a visit to a local Starbucks, I was startled to see a woman, a foreigner, who appeared to have some sort of facial dysmorphology. The bony protuberances of her cheekbones made me try to remember the name of the disease that could cause it.
She was a normal woman with a strong nose and cheekbones, characteristically Germanic features. Back in Massachusetts, my face recognition system had almost instantly popped back to its normal setting.
But the China trip had Individual and political freedom essay me to the virtue of minimizing individualist displays and respecting the desires of those above one in the social hierarchy. In the collectivist cultures of East Asia, people have been less concerned with expressing their individuality and more concerned about harmonious relations with others, including being sensitive to negative appraisal by others.
One result is a well-behaved classroom of 30 preschoolers led by one teacher and an assistant. As I sat at dinner with my female friends, I thought about the subtle power of social norms and respect for authority. In addition to the lessons of living in China, I remembered social psychologist and author of the book Righteous Mind: Haidt had once given a colloquium to my department and visited my lab.
In recent years the New York University professor has become something of a rock star of social psychology, largely because of his persuasive analysis of the value systems of liberals and of conservatives. Haidt proposes that the moral worldview of liberals focuses on justice and fairness, with equal treatment for all, and on care vs.
Political conservatives also have these values, says Haidt, but they are influenced by three other moral systems: The idea that different groups embrace different value systems was, of course, not new, but prior to reading Haidt I had considered respect for authority, in-group favoritism, and purity to be components of collectivist cultural groups, which are usually associated with developing nations and are often described in opposition to the individualist values that are hallmarks of modern, developed regions especially North America, Europe, and Australia.
Collectivism is widespread throughout the rest of the world, particularly in what researchers call small scale societies, but it is also present in large and well organized societies such as China, where traditional values and wisdoms from premodern times, such as Confucian teachings, remain influential.
Many Americans think it is good for all teenagers to have an after-school job, but Indians feel this should be done only if the family needs the money. An American entrepreneur explains to his elderly Polish relatives that his son has succeeded in business without having his father pull any strings or offer any financial assistance.
The Polish relatives are horrified. A graduate student from Kazakhstan has to forgo completing her PhD to return home to earn money so that her nephews can finish high school. I spent years holding conservative values in contempt.
Not care about global warming? Harmful, wrong, and unfair! The Turks, Indians, elderly Polish, Kazakhs, and Chinese presumably grew up in cultures where a premium was placed on sharing resources with in-group members, and where family members are expected to subordinate their own goals to those of the group.
The kind of urban living that most of us experience, for example, offers options that reduce the need to rely on other people.
In fact, many Americans recall being warned not to loan money to friends, because that puts friendships in danger. In contrast, my Turkish collaborator, Ayse Aycicegi-Dinn, explains that Turkish friends loan money to deepen mutual obligations while avoiding paying interest to banks.
Cross-cultural psychologists do not view either individualism or collectivism as inherently superior or inferior. They understand that each system has evolved to solve the problem of how individuals can benefit from living in groups, and they see both systems as having pros and cons.
Individualist societies like ours allow people to pursue their dreams probut when big aspirations crumble because of bad luck or intense competition, they may lack a safety net, either in terms of government services or family support con.
In individualistic societies, transactions are abstract and conveniently monetized pro. And indeed, friendships in individualist societies are typically many, diverse, and often shallow. They are easily initiated and routinely abandoned, as when, for example, we choose to relocate for a better paying job.
In collectivist societies, the familial ties and deep friendships that arise from never leaving your hometown and investing daily in relationship management provide a buffer against loneliness and depression.THE SUBJECT of this Essay is not the so-called Liberty of the Will, so unfortunately opposed to the misnamed doctrine of Philosophical Necessity; but Civil, or Social Liberty: the nature and limits of the power which can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was one of the most influential thinkers during the Enlightenment in eighteenth century Europe. His first major philosophical work, A Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, was the winning response to an essay contest conducted by the Academy of Dijon in In this work.
I have long called myself a social conservative. I think it is very important to have standards for behaviour (etiquette) and defined roles. The problems with this system is not that it exists, but the lack of flexibility and the value placed on them.
WHAT, then, is the rightful limit to the sovereignty of the individual over himself?Where does the authority of society begin? How much of human life should be assigned to individuality, and how much to society?
1: Each will receive its proper share, if each has that which more particularly concerns it. Hegel: Social and Political Thought. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel () is one of the greatest systematic thinkers in the history of Western philosophy.
The Slovenian Marxist philosopher and cultural critic is one of the most distinguished thinkers of our time. Žižek achieved international recognition as a social theorist after the publication of his first book in English, "The Sublime Object of Ideology“.